The Nobel Prize is an international award administered by the Nobel Foundation in Sweden. This award was established by the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, and inventor. The Nobel Prize was first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace. Sveriges Riksbank, in memory of Alfred Nobel established an associated award in Economics in 1968.

The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award one can receive in their respective fields. The Nobel Prize consists of a document confirming the prize amount, a Nobel Prize medal, and a personal diploma.

How the Nobel Prize materialized
Alfred Nobel was a Swedish scientist, industrialist, author, pacifist, and inventor of the high explosive dynamite. He obtained a patent for Dynamite in 1867 as an industrial explosive. He earned a lot of money through the explosives business. His invention (dynamites) was later used in wars, which spread a lot of violence and killed many people. So to reciprocate this, he established the Peace Prize. It is believed that Bertha von Suttner, Alfred Nobels secretary, also influenced his interest in a donation to the promotion of world peace. It was a great international sensation when his 1895 will disclosed that Alfred Nobel established a special peace prize, as his name was always connected with explosives and inventions useful in the war and not with peace.

The Nobel Prize has been honoring outstanding achievers in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine or Physiology, Literature and who work for peace since 1901. In the will, he bequeathed 94% of his total assets to establish and upkeep the five Nobel Prizes. It took five years to establish the Nobel Foundation and the first prizes were awarded on 10th December 1901.

Nomination and selection process
The nomination and selection process for the Nobel Prize is long and rigorous compared to other prizes. This is one of the key reasons for the Nobel Prize to become so popular and important one.

In the first stage, the respective Nobel Committees send thousands of individual invitations to members of academies, university professors, scientists from different countries, members of parliamentary assemblies, previous Nobel Laureates, and others asking them to nominate candidates for the coming year. Later, these names are thoroughly scrutinized and discussed by experts in their specific fields and vote for a winner.

The concerned Nobel Prize awarder holds a press conference immediately after the voting and announces the Nobel Laureates and the Laureates in Economic Sciences for the year.

Fields in which the prizes are awarded
The Nobel Prize is awarded to the outstanding performers in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Economic Sciences and for the Peace. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences selects the Nobel Laureates in Physics, Chemistry, and Economic Sciences and awards the prizes. Karolinska Institute selects the Laureates and awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The award in Literature is given by the Swedish academy. A Committee of five persons elected by the Norwegian Parliament awards Nobel Peace Prize.

The Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economics, except the Nobel Peace Prize are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10th December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobels death, in Stockholm, Sweden. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway on the same day.

Chlamydia (kluh-MID-ee-uh) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia can be treated relatively easily. However, if timely treatment is not provided, it can give rise to more serious disorders such as impotency and infertility. The most concerning aspect of the disease is the lack of any obvious symptoms. For this reason, it is often called the silent STD.

When symptoms occur they are sometimes the same or similar to that of gonorrhea, another common STD. As a result, people often confuse Chlamydia with Gonorrhea. Before dealing with the treatment options available for this infection, it is important to get a clear diagnosis.

Symptoms of Chlamydia

As already stated, the symptoms of Chlamydia might remain unnoticed for a long time or one may confuse these with the symptoms of some other diseases. Still, there are some obvious symptoms that indicate the presence of Clamydia trachomatis, the bacteria which cause the disease. The symptoms, if they become apparent, do so within one to three weeks after the bacterial infection. The symptoms are different for men and women.

For women, a slight increase in vaginal discharge and inflammation of the urinary tract are the common symptoms. An affected person might feel the urge to urinate more frequently. In addition, one might feel a moderate pain while passing urine. One might also feel pain during sexual intercourse and experience bleeding after the intercourse. The menstrual periods might become irregular. Abdominal pain and eye discomforts are also associated with the occurrence of Chlamydia.

For men, the symptoms are much easier to spot than in women. The main symptom among men is the discharge of a white, water-like liquid from the penis. If one finds regular stains or liquid marks on the underwear, one should consult a physician for further testing. Another common symptom of Chlamydia is a burning sensation at the penis while passing urine.

Treatment of Chlamydia

If you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above, you should consult a physician. Previously, almost all diagnostic procedures required a close inspection of genitals for men and vaginal area for women. While such procedures were not very painful, many people find such procedures uncomfortable. At present, there are many easy and inexpensive diagnosis options such as urine testing for detecting the presence of Clamydia trachomatis.

Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for this disease are azithromycin and doxycycline. Azithromycin such as zithromax is normally prescribed as a single dose of 1 g. While this is slightly more expensive than the other medications, this is ideal for those who may not be able to take the medicine everyday for a week.

Doxycycline is one of the cheaper options. It has to be administered to the affected person for a course of seven days, 100 mg per day. One should take care to complete the whole course continuously without any break. If you take a break, you have to start a new course all over again.

The most important aspect here is to provide the earliest possible treatment. Not only the affected person, but his or her recent sexual partners must also undergo the diagnostic procedure. In addition, the persons must abstain from any form of sexual activity for two weeks after the treatment. Pregnant women affected by Chlamydia should take special care, as the bacteria can affect the uterus and infect the child as well.

According to the US National Institute of Health, new cases of renal cancer in 2010 in the US stood at 58,240, with 13,040 deaths cases. Although there are no significant symptoms of kidney or renal cancer, you should approach a doctor if you notice blood in your urine, lump in your abdomen, unexplained weight loss or appetite loss. Afinitor (everolimus), developed and manufactured by Novartis, is the first oral daily therapy for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. This drug was developed after the failure of treatment with Sunitinib or Sorferib in cancer cells.
Applications and Dosage Related Information About Afinitor
Afinitor, which received the FDA approval in 2009 is also used for the treatment of patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) who need therapeutic intervention instead of curative surgical treatments. The medicine stops cancer cells from expanding by cutting off the blood supply to them. Afinitor is an inhibitor of mTOR and prevents cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
The medicine is available in 5mg and 10mg strengths for oral administration. The recommended initial dose for this drug is 10mg, to be taken once a day at the same time every day with or without food. One should swallow this medicine as a whole and avoid chewing or crushing it.
Some commonly witnessed side effects by users of Afinitor are:
mouth ulcers
loss of appetite
swelling of body parts
inflammation of the lining of the digestive system
These side effects are temporary and will go away after the therapy is complete.
However, some serious side effects may be felt by people taking Afinitor. These include:
Breathing problems
Severe infections, such as pneumonia, bacterial, fungal or viral
Precautions While Taking Afinitor
This medicine is not for patients who are already taking medication for fungal or bacterial infections, tuberclosis, seizures, HIV-AIDS, blood pressure or heart conditions. This medicine should also not be prescribed to a pregnant woman or a woman who is breast feeding.
If your doctor has prescribed Afinitor for your treatment, you should follow certain precautions:
Do not drink grape fruit juice or eat grape fruit, star fruit or Seville oranges during the whole treatment
In case of allergic reactions, one should immediately get back to his/her doctor
People using this medicine should not get a live vaccine or be around with people who have recently received a live vaccine

Traditional practitioners commonly treat pain and other ailments. However, Alexandria alternative medicine practitioners offer more choices for the individual who wishes to take a different path toward wellness. Among the alternatives offered for medical treatments are acupuncture, acupressure, massage, bodywork and therapeutic massage.

Acupuncture is a Chinese medicine practice used to relieve pain. It is alternately used for therapeutic purposes. The procedure consists of inserting thin, disposable, stainless steel needles into specific points of the body in a near-painless experience. The needles are then manipulated to control what is known as "qi" or blood flow. Traditional Chinese medicine is based on treating "patterns of disharmony" instead of biomedical treatments.

Acupressure, on the other hand, can be thought of as a mixture of acupuncture and pressure together. It is another alternative medical technique that is derived from acupuncture, only physical pressure is applied to the points in the body that would normally be treated with needles during acupuncture. In acupressure, these areas are called, "acupoints."

The practice of acupressure is controversial, as are most alternative treatments. However, many people report to have benefited from the practice.

Massage or massage therapy is another alternative medicine treatment that is used to treat stress, headaches, muscle aches and other pains, as well as for total relaxation. It is also used to alleviate lower back pain, which helps improve range of motion. Pregnant women often use massage therapy to help them during labor to have easier experiences. It also serves the purpose of helping to ease the dependence on addictive medications. The motion of massage therapy is said to enhance immunity by positively affecting the lymph flow. It has also been used to help athletes recover from injuries.

Massage therapy has also been known to help people who suffer from depression and anxiety as well as migraine headaches.

Bodywork is a therapeutic treatment that focuses on manipulating the energy fields that are associated with the body. The therapys practitioners hold the view that a lot of health conditions result from issues with the physical aspects of ones body such as tight muscles, tension or a blockage of some times. Types of bodywork include Rolfing, lymph massage, Shiatsu, lomi-lomi and other deep tissue massage techniques. This method of treatment is being used more and more in mainstream sports medicine.

Therapeutic massage is used in the same way as bodywork, but does not always include deep tissue massage. It is used to treat tension, anxiety, stress and any number of other ailments. While used in some mainstream practices, therapeutic massage is ultimately considered an alternative medicine practice.

Even renowned news agency, Fox News also did a study based on the African Mango Diet Pill. But fact remains that after going through an endless list of scam medicines boasting of their virtually unbeatable capability of causing weight loss; public is all the more skeptic about the possible effects of its weight reduction capability. So here is the million dollar question: does the African Mango Diet Pill really work?

The answer is... a Big YES. Obviously most of you are not going to believe me right now but stay with me and I am going to present to you a list of facts and study results pointing at the working success of the medicine.

We start our research with the fox news item of research which I talked about in the beginning. Their study was based on 100 over weight individuals who participated unconditionally in this research. At the end of a specified time period they all reported an average weight loss of no less than 25 pounds.

You've seen the diet pill advertisements, they crowd up your inbox and pop up all over the web and your television. You've probably seen various testimonials claiming that all kinds of people, like you, have lost weight using diet pill regimen. If you've never tried a diet pill to lose weight, you may be wondering if using diet pills will work for you. Many diet pills will help you to lose weight fast. Being that we li

Not to mention the stability effect which the pill showed on the cholesterol levels as well as sugar levels of the participating individuals.

This should be enough proof for you to go ahead. Since you are still continuing with reading my article I assume you are definitely not convinced yet. Let me take the help of Doctor Oz. show. The show which is an all time hit reviewed the mini miracle medicine as one of the largest breakthrough supplement and a miracle in your medicine closet. Dr Oz. also went on to call the ingredient fruit as a "super fiber".

The reviews of shows and researches may have not made that much impact on your perception about this diet pill, but let me give you a user review that might help.
A close friend of mine has been using this medicine for two months now. His experience is actually very interesting. He narrates that when he started the usage of this pill he was himself very skeptical but the first month of usage made him look forward to another month long program which also incorporated the workout routine. And to me as well as to his utmost shock he was 12.3 pounds lighter at the end of that month. The workout routine chosen by my friend had been not the hardest. It was a half an hour running or one hour walk.

I hope that it has been an interactive and knowledge based and I am further hoping that may arguments have made the impact I was looking forward to get from them. Surely the pill is asking for some sort of leap of faith but I can guarantee you that it is worth it. Weight loss can be a challenge but it doesn't have to be as hard as you think.

In the recent years, the field of aesthetic medicine has seen a vast development & advancement. Cosmetic surgeries have become very popular & people prefer to choose the best of surgeons & clinics for their treatment. In contrast to the previous days, people are much aware about the procedures, risks & pros and cons of the cosmetic surgery procedures. Nowadays, People prefer to choose certified & experienced cosmetic surgeons only. Therefore, these courses have become very important. It has become a popular career nowadays. A large number of freshers and experienced beauticians are opting for the Cosmetic Surgery Training Courses for better future prospects.

Over the years, Aesthetic medicine has emerged as a great career option. The cosmetic surgery clients are growing day by day & certified cosmetic surgeons are in great demand. Earlier, the people werent much aware about the process. But today, they are more educated about it's procedures & wish to get an effective & safe treatment. It has become a common notion that quality treatment is the job of certified cosmetic surgeons. Therefore, learning the Cosmetic Surgery Training Courses has become very important for better career growth & success and an aspirant aspiring to make a good career in this field must consider the  Aesthetic Training Courses .

These Courses are planned in a way for offering the best of training skills & modern techniques. In general, every course module comprises of varying segments ranging from basics to the advanced courses for providing the most expert knowledge on the art and science of aesthetic and cosmetic surgery. Every module can be a certification course which can be either done alone or in combination with other courses for an in-depth study. The best practice is to acquire knowledge of it by means of these courses for a successful career. The level of teaching you receive at the ECAM through the membership and course attendance counts a lot in the degree course.

Taking Membership from a reputed college of Aesthetic Medicine can be very beneficial for the professionals looking to take professional certifications

- You can avail special discounts on all courses and worldwide workshops held by the medical college.
- Get a direct access to the senior faculty for active help and support during the aesthetic medicine practice.
- You can get regular updates and newsletters for staying up-to-date about aesthetic medicine trends.
- By having the membership of college, you can enjoy exclusive access to Master Classes in aesthetic medicine.
- Get updates about the Standards of Aesthetic & Cosmetic Surgery and developments in specialty recognition
- Getting Membership of a reputed Aesthetic Medicine college entitle you for the certificates & logos of the college. You can display them in your practice and your website.
- Being a member of ECAM gets you recognition & boosts your profile, thereby improving your business success.

ECAM or European College of Aesthetic Medicine is a reputed medical college that provides extensive learning experience to the aspiring physicians directly from the leaders in the industry. If you are looking for Cosmetic Surgery Training Courses to get certified in Aesthetic Medicine, then see

If you frequently face problems with your health, particularly with your spine, then you might consider contacting a family chiropractor nearby you. Chiropractic medicines can be advantageous to you in various ways, and in some cases, insurance covers chiropractic treatment similarly as it does traditional treatment. Let's learn about certain advantages to using chiropractic as an adjunct to traditional therapies.

Traditional medicines surely benefit people who are suffering from injuries and disease, and it had come a long way in recent years especially with new treatments and drugs. Though, chiropractic treatment works with the body basically to restore -homeostasis- whereby spinal relocation and other medical treatment for the skeletal are done for best health. It is especially beneficial in cases of traumatic injuries such as osteoarthritis, migraine headaches, whiplash experienced during an accident, and back issues like lower back pain which we generally experience in our routine life.

Things which should be noticed here is that traditional medicine and chiropractic medicine does not require to be in competition with each other. Rather, traditional medicines and chiropractic treatments can be used in an adjunct manner to provide the best treatment for the situation.

In various cases though, chiropractic medicine can provide better treatment especially in case of pain as compared to that of traditional medicinal treatment. For instance, in case of osteoarthritis, often times, the only solution that can be provided by an allopathic treatment is over- the- counter anti inflammatory drugs; and if these medicines do not work, then stronger pain killer medicines are administered including opiates, are often prescribed also. And such strong allopathic medicines have their own side effects. In certain cases, these can become addictive as well. And in any case, if the pain is deemed to be permanent then medication must also be taken permanently in order to have continual pain relief.

On the other hand, chiropractic treatment helps the patient by realigning the skeletal structure, including the back and the spine, so as to minimize the pain and in fact improve altogether. And above all, this can often be done without any drugs or surgical treatment. Even though, regular adjustments may be required to be done by your family chiropractor so as to keep the pain at bay, there is no insidious treatment like surgery needed, and in fact no regular ingestion of what can be risky medications to control pain.

In fact, chiropractic medicine can be very beneficial if you use it just as a means to stay pain free and healthy. All of us nowadays experience stress such that we have skeletal or spinal pains and aches at some point. Maybe our job is very hectic, or perhaps we spend most of our time by sitting at a desk. Either ways, we are likely to experience these pains. Thus, regardless of our lifestyles, a family chiropractic has a place in our lives so that we spend our life feeling and looking our best.

If you want to know more about family chiropractic then you can visit at . So take these benefits from a family chiropractic and have a pain free life!

About The Author

Dr. Leah Gallucci is a renowned practitioner of advanced chiropractics and a trusted caregiver in Moon Township, Pennsylvania. Loads of people visit her to get access to family chiropractic as well as injury related treatments. She also likes various informative articles on the topic which can offer you some amazing data on various aspects on the topic.

The governments of Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, and Norway and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announce the first long-term agreements made by pharmaceutical firms to provide increased access to medicine by supplying new, affordable vaccines against pneumococcal disease to the worlds poorest countries.

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Pfizer Inc. were the first companies to agree to supply pneumococcal vaccines through the Advance Market Commitment (AMC). These vaccines may be available as early as this year at a fraction of the price charged in industrialized countries.

"We welcome GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Pfizer Inc. as AMC-supplier(s) and hope that more suppliers will join in soon, in particular emerging vaccine manufacturers from developing countries" expressed Paul Fife, Norway Head of Department.

The AMC was created to stimulate the development, manufacture, and uptake of affordable vaccines that meet the needs of developing countries.

"The AMC demonstrates how innovative thinking about global markets can save lives in the worlds poorest countries," said Tachi Yamada, president of the Gates Foundations Global Health Program.

In June 2009, the governments of Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Russian Federation, Norway and the Gates Foundation launched a pilot AMC with a collective US$1.5 billion commitment. In addition, GAVI will help fund the total cost of these vaccines by contributing up to US$ 1.3 billion for the period 2010 to 2015.

"Today we have taken an important step forward in harnessing the potential of the pharmaceutical industry. As a result developing countries will be able to better protect the lives of their children at a price that is affordable and over a time frame that will deliver sustainable improvements in global health targets," said United Kingdom International Development Minister, Mike Foster. "The UK will continue to champion innovative solutions that deliver more health for less money."

Thanks to these financial commitments, pharmaceutical companies have responded to the incentive and committed to supply millions of doses of life-saving vaccines for ten years at an affordable price an unprecedented achievement  providing increased access to medicine for millions of people. The AMC enables developing country governments to budget and plan for their immunisation programmes knowing that vaccines will be available in sufficient quantity and at a price they can afford over the long term.

Pneumococcal disease takes the lives of 1.6 million people each year  including up to one million children before their fifth birthday. More than 90 percent of these deaths occur in developing countries, where access to medicine is not always available. Pneumonia, the most common form of serious pneumococcal disease, accounts for one in every four child deaths, making it the leading cause of death among young children. It is estimated that the pilot could save approximately 900,000 lives by 2015 and up to seven million lives by 2030.

To learn more about this program and access to medicine, visit Global Health Progress at

Puberty experiences in young women will vary. Doctors practicing adolescent medicine advise parents and their daughters to pay close attention to certain issues and as they advance through various stages of puberty.

Painful cramps are one symptom that parents should inquire about. While it is common for the teen to experience cramps during the time of their period, excruciating cramps could indicate a serious condition in teenage women. Severe cramps can indicate dysmenorrhea. One form of dysmenorrhea, the primary spasmodic, can affect 80 percent of young teenage females. Other issues like endometriosis could also be linked to severe cramps. Parents with teens experiencing severe cramps may want to speak with a physician about the problem.

Infrequent periods is another thing that the parents should take note of. Many young women may experience a missed period within the year the menstrual cycle begins. Periods can become irregular among extremely active teens that play sports and exercise often. Irregular periods can also be a symptom of the condition polycystic ovary syndrome. This condition affects ten percent of women. It can cause irregular hair growth, acne and weight gain. Any hormonal balance problems the teen may be experiencing contributing to conditions stemming from irregular periods can be managed by the doctor working in the field of adolescent medicine in Idaho Falls.

Unhealthy weight gain is another problem that parents want to watch for. The excess weight can lead to an imbalance in hormone levels, and if untreated, the teen could have issues as a young adult with weight. Weight issues among teens can develop into a lifestyle, so proper counseling from a physician that specializes in adolescent medicine in Idaho Falls can help address this concern. Physicians in adolescent medicine can help the parents and the teen handle weight issues in a way that helps promote a healthy self-image and a healthy lifestyle.

Delayed puberty is another issue that should be of concern to parents. Breast development, menstruation and other physical changes are tied to a timeline. While not all teenage females develop at the same time, an abnormal delay should be discussed with the physician specializing in adolescent medicine. Such a delay can indicate an endocrine or reproductive problem in teen women.

Adolescent medicine helps parents address the developmental concerns affecting teenage women early on. The earlier these issues are addressed in young women, the easier they are to treat successfully. There are five stages of puberty for young women, and parents can help guide their children through them with the help of a physician specializing in adolescent medicine in Idaho Falls.

The practice of adolescent medicine in Alaska focuses on the care of teenagers. It is a specialized practice in the field of medicine. Adolescent medicine incorporates aspects of internal medicine, psychology, nutrition, gynecology, endocrinology, dermatology and sports medicine. A child is considered to be an adolescent when he or she is about to enter into puberty. Usually, girls enter into puberty a few years prior to boys, on average around the age of ten. A boy will generally enter into puberty when he is eleven or twelve years old. It is recommended that a teenager have a complete physical examination, including regular visits to the dentist and eye doctor, as well as a comprehensive mental health review beginning with the onset of adolescence.

Alcohol and drug abuse are prevalent amongst teenagers in all geographical areas. There is a very high incidence of alcoholism in Alaska. In order to address this problem, there are after-school programs for teenagers who are considered to be at-risk of drug or alcohol abuse or who may be suicidal. There are a variety of programs in Alaska that specialize in working with teenagers in a therapeutic program that addresses these issues. The impetus of these programs is to help the adolescent understand underlying issues that may be propelling them towards alcohol or drug dependence and offering them alternative ways of managing their feelings and stress levels.

Another specialty in adolescent medicine in Alaska is equine therapy. Because of the vast open spaces in Alaska, there are a number of equine therapy centers that work with teenagers on re-establishing good mental health. Some of the benefits of equine therapy are reported to be a raise in self-esteem as the teens learns to take care of his or her horse well. Troubled teens also come away from the program being less defensive because they are able to open up and connect with their horse without being self-conscious or judged. Equine therapy also allows adolescents to develop the qualities of self-discipline, patience, trust and empathy as they learn to take care of their horse and form a bond of friendship.

These are some of the specialized programs focusing on adolescent medicine in Alaska. Teenagers have their own unique medical needs as they grow from childhood to adulthood. Good mental health care is very important if a young person is experiencing difficulty in school or home life. The alcohol and drug rehabilitation programs found in Alaska help a teen to address issues of drug or alcohol dependency. The equine therapy programs are therapeutic programs that address and often heal adolescent mental health issues.