Patients suffering from high blood pressure are sometimes advised by physicians to take a daily dose of aspirin. But do aspirin and high blood pressure really have a connection considering that the medicine is marketed for other, less serious, ailments such as minor body pains and fever? A study on this relationship was tested on patients with mild hypertension. More severe high blood pressure conditions require prescription medications. As a chemical under the category of "salicylate", aspirin is commonly used as a medication to treat mild fevers and as a pain killer. Among the many properties of aspirin is its ability to inhibit the oration of prostaglandins in the body. Prostaglandins promote blood clotting by causing the blood cells to stick together; thus, in the case of high blood pressure, which is also a risk for heart attack (which is in turn directly caused by blood clots in the vessels), aspirin helps.

Despite the obvious benefits of taking aspirin as a way to manage the effects of hypertension, one should still consult a physician before taking the medication. It is important to take any kind of medicine in the right dosage and in the right time intervals for your own safety. Aspirin is an over-the-counter medicine, and is relative cheap and widely available. Even though it is a commonly used medicine, aspirin is not without side effects. Intestinal and stomach bleeding are just some of the possible side effects of taking aspirin incorrectly. It also may not be compatible with certain individuals, possibly due to a physiological characteristics or if one I taking other medications that do not work well with aspirin. Generally, aspirin has shown beneficial effects on people with cardiovascular ailments. However, because it increases the potential for bleeding, those who have blood disorders or any other type of abnormal bleeding should not readily take aspirin. Also, you should check if you have allergies against this medicine or other similar chemical formulations. It has been reported that people with kidney disease, asthma, gout, or ulcer should also avoid aspirin. Long term use of aspirin should also be monitored to watch for potentially dangerous side effects.

As already established, aspirin is a relatively safe medicine if taken as directed by a physician.
In terms of its use as a preventative medication against stroke, it is important to know that it is only effective against ischemic stroke that results from blockage of blood flow to the brain, possibly due to blot clots. The other type of stroke is the hemorrhagic stroke, which is caused by bleeding and bursting of blood vessels, cannot be prevented by aspirin. However, it has been reported that four out of five strokes are ischemic. Aspirin thus far is the only over the counter medicine that has been promoted to prevent heart attack and stroke. However, before starting on an aspirin regimen, for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, consult with your doctor first.

People with arthritis find that complementary and alternative therapies may help relieve symptoms of arthritis in some patients but they do not cure arthritis. Complementary and alternative medicine are used here to describe a wide range of therapies and practices which are outside the mainstream of medicine. They are often used a longside your conventional medicine.

There are a number of complementary and alternative therapies. They can be divided into four different categories

- Touch, pressurem manipulation and movement therapies such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, and massage - Medicine and diet-related therapies such as herbs and natural dietary supplements, raditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. - Mind and emotion therapies such as meditation, prayer - Energy Therapies such as reiki, pulsed fields, magnetic fields Some of the therapies most popular with people suffer from arthritis are:

#acupuncture #aromatherapy #herbs #natural dietary supplements #chiropractic #homeopathy #hydrotherapy #biofeedback #magnet therapy #massage #meditation #osteopathy #tai chi #yoga #Copper bracelets

Safety is very important to people who use complementary and alternative therapies. Many turn to complementary and alternative medicine because they have suffered side-effects from conventional treatment. It is difficult to generalize, but generally speaking complementary and alternative therapies are relatively safe, although you should always discuss their use with your doctor before embarking on treatment. There are some risks associated with specific therapies.

If you decide to try a complementary therapy, the following checklist will help you ensure your treatment is reliable and safe:

* Tell your doctor about about any alternative or complementary treatments you are receiving. * Tell your complementary practitioner about any prescribed medication you are taking. * Ask your complementary therapist how much treatment will cost and how long it will take. * Find out whether the therapist is a member of a professional body. * Find out whether they have insurance in case something goes wrong. * Ask about their training and how long they have been practising * Don't stop taking a prescription medicine without talking to your doctor first.

Author: If you want more information about Arthritis please visit THIS SITE right now.

These have a broad spectrum of activity and include the following drugs:

Cefotaxine (Biotax, Clazforn, Omnatax), Ceftazidime (Fotum), Ceftizoxime (Cefizox), Cefoperazone (Magnamycin), Ceftriaxone (Cefaxone, Monocef), Cefixime (Cefspan, Topcef), Cefdinir (Adcef), Cefpodoxime (Cepodem) Ceftibuten (Procadax).

Due to their ability to penetrate the central nervous sxstem, third-generation cephalosporins - except cefoperazone and cefixime - can be used to treat meningitis, including meningitis caused by pneumococci, meningococci, H influenzae, and susceptible gram-negative rods (bacillary infections of alimentary system). Cefoperazone and ceftazidine are effective in pseudomonas infections of various body organs. In these infections an aminoglycoslde such as gentamicin is also given. Other potential indications include sepsis of unknown causes in the immunocompetent patient and susceptible infections in which cephalosporins are the least toxic drugs available. In neutropenic, febrile immunocompromised patients, third-generation cephalosporins can be effective if used in combination with an aminoglycoslde. They are commonly used in hospital settings in patients with serious systemic infections. Ceficime, cefdinir, cefpodoxime and ceftibuten are effective orally also.

Fourth-Generation Cephalosporins

Cefepime (Kefage) can be used in resistant infections due to gram negative rods and staphylococci causing septicemia. Cefpirome (Cepodem, Cefoprox) has same utility as cefepime. These are very expensive.

Adverse Effects of Cephalosporins: Allergy: Cephalosporins are sensitizing and may variety of hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, fever, skin rashes, nephritis, granulocytopenia, and hemolytic anaemia. The chemical nucleus of cephalosporins is sufficiently different from that of penicillins, enabling some individuals with a history of penicillin allergy to tolerate cephalosporins. However, patients with a history of anaphylaxis to penicillins should never receive cephalosporins.

Toxicity: Local irri!ation can produse severe pain after intramuscular injection and thrombophlebitis after intravenous injection. Renal toxicity, including interstitial nephritis (kidney tissue swelling) and even tubular necrosis, has been demonstrated and has caused the abandonment of cephaloridine.

Cephalosporins that contain a methylthiotetrazole group (for example, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone) frequently cause hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding disorders. Adminstration of vitamin K, 10 mg twice weekly, can prevent this. White cells count and platelet count are reduced in rare cases.

Drugs with the 'methylthiotetrazole ring can also cause severe reaction with alcohol (intolerance), consequently, alcohol and alcohol-containing medications must be avoided.


Many second and particularly third generation cephalosporins are ineffective against grampositive organisms, especially stayphylococci and enterococci. During treatment with such drugs, these resistant organisms, as well as fungi, often proliferate and may induce super infection.

Linezolid (Lizolid, Linox)

It is effective in resistant pneumococci, staphylococci and enteric organisms induced infections. It may cause suppression of bone marrow and interacts with decongestant drugs whose dose should be reduced.


Ciprofloxacin (Cipad, Ciplox, Cipride), Norfloxacin (Anquin, Biofloxin, Norflox), Ofloxacin (Travid, Zanocid), Pefloxacin (Peflox, Piflasyn), Lomefloxacin (Lomef), Sparfloxacin (Torospar), Levofloxacin (Loxof), and Gatifloxacin (Gatri)

In 1990 fluoroquinolones were introduced to tackle ever increasing menace of resistance gram-negative rods. Since then many more drugs have been developed which have effects against both gram positive and negative bacteria, anaerobes and tuberculosis organisms. These drugs affect the DNA of bacteria. Unfortunately due to overuse, resistance is becoming the problem again.

Ciprofloxacin is presently a drug of choice for typhoid fever, (chloramphenicol is no longer used) gonorrhoea, abdominal (bowel) infections and diarrhoea, soft tissue and bone infections. It can be used 500 mg twice a day orally or intravenously in serious cases.

Adverse Effects: Some of the adverse effects of ciprofloxacin are loss of appetite, nausea and bowel upset, dizziness, restlessness, loss of sleep, poor concentration and tremulousness (avoid driving). Drug allergy may cause skin eruptions. A potentially serious problem is that it may cause cartilage damage as based on animal studies so should be used sparingly in children (although it is best to avoid it). Theophylline, caffeine, warfarm show toxicity when taken with ciprofloxacin and require staggering or reduction in dose. Pain relievers may cause more CNS adverse effects of ciprofloxacin. Antacids, milk and iron salts reduce absorption of ciprofloxacin, therefore, do not take with milk or after meals.

Norfloxacin is less potent to ciprojloxacin but is effective in the treatment of urinary tract infection and diarrhoea. Its usual dose is 400 mg twice a day in adult and it is not recommended for children.

Pefloxacin is a good drug for meningeal infections and typhoid fever. A single dose of 400 cures gonorrhoea.

Ofloxacin is effective in urethritis, cervicitis and atypical pneumonia. It is useful in tuberculosis also. Food does not reduce its absorption.

Sparfloxacin has greater activity to treat pneumonia, sinus infection, and ear infections, It is longer acting so it given in a dose of 200-400 mg once a day. It may cause disturbed heart beats particularly when other drugs are given along with it (drugs for depression and cisapride).

Gatefloxacin is like sparfloxacin in action and is increasingly used for the treatment of pneumonia, gonorrhoea, and urinary passage infections. Usual dose is 400 mg once a day. It has the same drawbacks as sparfloxacin.

Levofloxacin is completely absorbed orally and is less likely to interact with drugs (unlike ciprojloxacin and others). High cure rates are achieved in pneumonia, sinusitis, acute kidney infections and soft tissue infections. It is used in a dose of 500 mg once a day.

Anti-Aging Medicine -- The Truth Behind Certified Res-v Resveratrol

Resveratrol is currently taking the world by storm with its promises of increasing energy, preventing heart problems, and even delaying the aging process, and if you are to believe the advertisements, Certified Res-v is the best way to get your dosage of it. 150mg of resveratrol is packed in each tablet of Certified Res-v, and you take it by letting it melt in the mouth. According to the producers of the supplement, this is the best way yet to take the nutrient. Can it really erase the years as well as erase heart disease as it seems to promise? Will it work as advertised or is it just a fresh batch of empty hype that is so rife in the health industry?

We first learned of resveratrol because of the so-called French Paradox, which explored the reasons why the French suffered so few heart problems despite their fat-laden diet. The evidence pointed to their large consumption of wine as the cause of this near-immunity, and later on the component in the wine that was mostly responsible for this property was found to be resveratrol. The list of benefits coming from the consumption in large quantities of the component also pointed to the mitigation of diabetes and liver related disease, counteracting the bad effects of a high-calorie diet, and even the prevention of breast cancer.

Resveratrol has also been found to be concentrated in grape skins, making it relatively easy to access and harvest. In combination with all its purported benefits, the nutrient has now become the new star of the health and nutrition industry. The latest development in this arena is Certified Res-v and is promising to be the most practical way yet for getting access to these benefits. The tablets are grape-flavored and carry the equivalent of 150 glasses of wine in its resveratrol content, but without the sugar or alcohol.

Click on the link best resveratrol reviews

The immune system seems to be overly sensitive in people with Ankylosing spondylitis and certain cells of the immune system that initiate inflammation may be triggered too easily.

Corticosteroids (such as prednisone) have extremely powerful anti-inflammatory properties and also suppress the immune system. The problem with corticosteroids is that the side effects are severe in long-term use and the person taking them can develop a host of other unwanted problems.

TNF Inhibitors:

One class of drugs, TNF Inhibitors (such as Remicade), has shown a lot of promise in treating ankylosing spondylitis along with other chronic inflammatory diseases. Remicade suppresses inflammation by binding to and neutralizing substances (TNFa) that act as an alarm signal that triggers inflammation. New drugs in this class are being developed.

Remicade infusion contains the active ingredient infliximab, which is a type of medicine called a monoclonal antibody. It works by suppressing part of the immune system and modifying the process of inflammation.

Monoclonal antibodies are manufactured antibodies that are specifically designed to recognise and bind to unique proteins in the body. Infliximab works by binding to and preventing the activity of a specific protein produced by the body, called tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). TNF alpha is involved in producing inflammation. It controls the activity of other inflammatory chemicals.

This medicine can compromise the body's ability to fight infections, and cases of tuberculosis (TB) have been seen. For this reason, you should be tested for TB prior to treatment. Tell your doctor immediately if you experience persistent coughing, weight loss or fever, as these can be symptoms of TB. It is important to try and avoid exposure to infections during your treatment. Contact your doctor as soon as possible if you get any symptoms of any infection so that it can be treated without delay. This applies for up to six months after finishing treatment, as this is how long it may take for the medicine to be removed from the body. Be aware that this medicine can mask some of the usual symptoms of infection, such as a high temperature (fever), so it is important to be extra vigilant. If you develop a serious infection, further treatment with this medicine should not be given.

Physicians in the Classical World had access to a variety of medical & surgical instruments that were designed to aid them in their treatment of the sick. Several ancient texts mention the use of surgical tools and instruments used by doctors in antiquity. The precise date when each instrument was first employed is largely unknown. The most of the instruments seemed to have been available to Hippocrates (c. 460) and continued to be used throughout the late Roman Empire with several existing in a similar form still being used by physicians today. The Greco-Roman Age covers the period when the Romans ruled the Greek World. Greek medicine and surgery grew up side by side, as partners and medicine continued to develop under the Romans who had gained much of their medical knowledge from the Greeks; so much so that Julius Caesar gave Roman citizenship to all free-born Greek physicians practicing in Rome. The Romans easily conquered Macedonia and Greece in 197 BC but proclaimed the freedom of Greece the following year only to return in 167 BC to abolish the Macedonian kingdom that refused to follow their wishes. Roman armies swept into Southern Greece taking action against those who disobeyed their orders. Another recognized period known as the Greco-Roman occurred from the time of the great physician, Galen, until the fall of the Roman Empire. Toward the end of this era, Greek influence began to fade. Only a few medical men were respected but most were little better off than slaves do. After a time, Roman medicine fell into the orbit of Byzantine Culture and lost the original virility inherited from the Greeks.

Physicians and dentists in the Ancient World had a variety of surgical instruments available to them in the treatment of the sick and a number of ancient manuscripts mention the use of surgical tools. Bone drills were used to remove diseased bone tissue and foreign objects of considerable thickness, such as a weapon, from a bone. Hooks were commonly used and came in two varieties, either sharp or blunt. The sharp hooks were used to hold and lift small pieces of tissue so that it could be extracted. They were also used to retract the edges of the wounds. The spatula probe was used for the mixing, measuring and applying of different medications. The medical scalpel was used to make a variety of incisions but it seemed to be particularly suited for making either deep or long cuts. Aetius, a 6th century physician, described using a forceps to crush the uvula before cutting it off in order to prevent hemorrhaging.

Scalpels could be made of steel, bronze, or a combination of the two metals (such as a steel blade and a bronze handle). Ancient scalpels had almost the same form and function as their modern counterparts do today. The two long steel scalpels that make up the first and third columns of the accompanying image are examples of the most ordinary type of scalpel from antiquity. These long scalpels could be used to make a variety of incisions, but they seem to be particularly suited to making either deep or long cuts. The four bronze scalpels, which make up columns two and four, are generally referred to as "bellied scalpels." This variety of scalpel was another favorite of physicians in antiquity since the shape of its handle allowed more delicate and precise cuts to be made (such as incisions between ribs).

Hooks were another common instrument used regularly by Greek and Roman doctors. The hooks, the ancient doctors used, came in two basic varieties: sharp and blunt. Both of these types of hooks are still used by modern surgeons for many of the same purposes for which the ancient doctors first used them. For instance, blunt hooks were primarily used as probes for dissection and for raising blood vessels. Sharp hooks, were used to hold and lift small pieces of tissue so that they could be extracted and to retract the edges of wounds.

The Forceps, with their finely toothed jaws, were probably designed to facilitate the amputation of the uvula. This procedure, as described by Aetius in the first half of the sixth century, called for the physician to crush the uvula with forceps before cutting it off in order to prevent hemorrhaging. Forceps also were used by ancient doctors to extract the small fragments of bone, which could not be grasped by the fingers. Naturally, physicians often used such forceps in conjunction with bone drills.

Bone drills were generally driven in their rotary motion by means of a thong in various configurations. Greek and Roman physicians used bone drills in order to excise diseased bone tissue from the skull and to remove foreign objects of considerable thickness (such as a weapon) from a bone.

Physicians in the Classical World employed catheters in order to open up a blocked urinary tract, which allowed urine to pass freely from the body. These early catheters were essentially hollow tubes made of steel or bronze and had two basic designs: one with a slight S curve for male patients and another straighter one for females. The same doctors also used similar shaped devices, which were solid, as opposed to hollow, in order to probe the bladder in search of calcifications.

Summery: The Greco-Roman Age covers the period when the Romans ruled the Greek World. Greek medicine and surgery grew up side by side, as partners and medicine continued to develop under the Romans who had gained much of their medical knowledge from the Greeks.

When you hear about Traditional Chinese Medicine, what is the first thing that pops into your mind? Odd stuff in jars in dark smoky rooms where equally odd old men mutter strange incantations in Chinese as they burn incense in a pot? Actually, there may actually literally be such places and maybe they do practice some form of Traditional Chinese Medicine too  but in these modern times, Traditional Chinese Medicine can also mean medicine that is practiced by even Western followers of the traditional ways of treating patients as the Chinese have learned all these centuries. And for such Western practitioners, Traditional Chinese Medicine may not mean burning incense as well but rather keeping rather immaculate and clinical treatment rooms where any modern patient would feel comfortable being treated for whatever is ailing him.

One part of Traditional Chinese Medicine that many Westerners may have heard of is acupuncture which is closely related to acupressure. Both acupuncture and acupressure are based on the premise that throughout our body certain points exist at which energy might be strongest. When the Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioner finds some energy points to be blocked, he might prescribe a round of acupuncture (meaning, sharp sterile needles are inserted at such pressure points to release your vital energy that has been blocked there), or simply press down on the pressure points in a prescribed way so that the blocked energy finds itself flowing again through your body and the ailment is relieved. Though some Westerners may find this Traditional Chinese Medicine belief to be a bit strange, many other Western medical practitioners now advocate these two Traditional Chinese Medicine practices and may even use them in their own clinical practice.

Depending on who you talk to, Traditional Chinese Medicine may be considered either a form of alternative medicine or a form of complementary medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine may be a type of alternative medicine in that you can opt for Traditional Chinese Medicine practices rather than the conventional Western style of medical treatment  thus you chose an alternative. Traditional Chinese Medicine practices become complementary medicine when you allow both a Western style of medical treatment and the Traditional Chinese Medicine practices to be used side by side at the same time when you are undergoing treatment for your ailment. It may be easier to determine the efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine when you opt to have it by itself, rather than mixing it with other forms of treatment. This is because the symptoms of your ailment might get relieved under a complementary medicine type of treatment program so you might get confused as to which treatment option really worked for you.

Not surprisingly, many people of Oriental lineage are strong believers in Traditional Chinese Medicine and may eschew modern ways of treatment so that they can favor Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment options alone for themselves and their loved ones. Is this good? It depends on the ailment  there are some ailments that modern ways of treatment seem to have been very effective at treating (such as cancer) for which there is little evidence that Traditional Chinese Medicine can cure. If you want to be sure of getting well, you may want to pursue Traditional Chinese Medicine only after modern scientific ways of diagnosing an illness have failed to show what you are really ill with. There is some evidence of a so-called placebo effect when complementary medicine methods are used where modern treatment practices have failed to give the desired cure.

These days it can be a real challenge to save for college. This is especially true for medical students who have to pay for an additional four years of schooling. Some students may feel discouraged by the sky high tuition and think that achieving the education needed is not an option for them. However, it is important that students know their options. Certainly, financial aid and scholarships provide some funding, but it is not always enough. About 50 percent of college students end up paying for higher education with student loans. Even if a student finds that they were able to save for college, just not enough, a medical student loan can help supplement the cost. A student wanting to attend medical school may find that applying for a loan is the best option for them.

Most students will find that getting a medical school loan is a practical choice. One of the reasons for this is that often the borrowed money will not have to be paid back until after graduation. By the time they must begin to pay back the money, many graduates will have obtained a position at a hospital or other medical facility and will be financially secure enough to be able to handle the payments. This allows a person to focus all of their mental energies on studying instead of worrying about having enough money for school. Also, having a loan may be a practical choice as many companies will send the money straight to the college when payment for the classes is due. Additionally, many companies provide low interest rates. This makes the process of repayment much easier. Likewise, a person taking out a medical school loan can have another person cosign with them if their credit history is not strong. This option allows some students who might not have been able to secure a loan on their own to be able to obtain the money needed for school. A benefit of this is that it can build up credit for students who are typically younger in age.

Finally, it is not hard to apply for a medical school loan. This is an additional benefit, as time could be a factor for some students. Many companies have made the process even simpler by allowing the applications to be filled out online. The convenience of this provides a person with the ability to apply from home.

Shri Vinay Mitra Mandal, a non government organization from Raipur, in the Chhattisgarh state of India, has been actively involved in many social welfare activities. They regularly participate in various activities helping the poor people of the region and have been quite actively involved in Jaipur foot camp in collaboration with Balco, a private sector company. The programme helps provide light-weight artificial limb made of Aluminium to poor people who suffer from lower limb amputation. They have also been involved in other relief and social welfare programmes over the years. One such programme was in Kukurbeda and Subhash Nagar areas of Raipur, Chhattisgarh.

There was an outbreak of Jaundice in the poor areas of Raipur which included the Kukurbeda and Suhash Nagar areas of Raipur. Many people suffered from Jaundice and most of the people suffering were poor women and children. The outbreak of Jaundice was mostly in the slum and poor areas of Raipur as the hygiene in these areas are generally not very good. Many times the water supply is not up to the mark. In general the cases of water borne diseases go up in India during the monsoon season and the people who suffer the most are the poor people who cannot afford the good quality water as buying treated water is expensive and the only source of treated water at reasonable cost is the Government water supply which is not available in many of the places due to various reasons.

During the outbreak of Jaundice in Raipur, Shri Vinay Mitra Mandal took several steps to help the poor people. They worked closely with the local government officials of the city and also with the mayor of the municipal corporation of Raipur. They collaborated with the private sector business organizations and doctors to help the poor people of kukurbeda and Subash Nagar. They organized camps where poor people were given free medical checkups and also given free medicines in collaboration with the private sector donors. The camps were personally visited by the mayor of the city. The free medicine included the ayurvedic medicine Kamalahar. Kamalahar is an Ayurvedic or herbal medicine which is very useful in the treatment of liver disorders such as hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhosis, fatty liver, etc. The herbal ingredients present in Kamalahar are very good for liver detoxification which helps to make the liver strong and healthy. The medicine is widely used in the eastern part of India in the state of Jharkhand, Orissa, Bihar, etc. to treat people suffering from jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty liver and at the same time the medicine is also very cost effective. The NGO worked closely with Khatore Pharmaceuticals Private Limited the company that make and sells Kamalahar.

During the outbreak of Jaundice in kukurbeda and Subash Nagar areas of Raipur, apart from setting up the camps, Shri Vinay Mitra Mandal also dedicated their office in the city centre to distribute free Kamalahar and other medicines to the needy patients. The initiative by the NGO in collaboration with Khatore Pharmaceuticals Private limited benefited hundreds of patients in the worst affected areas of Raipur and helped in controlling the outbreak of jaundice quickly. The people who benefited from the initiative most included poor women and children who have been the most affected by the outbreak. The initiative was even more important as the current way to treat jaundice is to ask for rest which the poor people cannot afford as they have to work daily to earn their living.

Ayurvedic Product Kamalahar - Effective for the treatment of liver disorders, hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhosis, fatty liver.

Webster defines orthodox as adhering to what is commonly accepted, customary, or traditional. Today, 36 U.S. teaching hospitals are pushing the orthodox envelope to blend complimentary medicine with traditional care. No longer treated like unwanted relatives, this is the largest growing area of medicine. Hundreds of thousands of scientific studies are published annually, with millions of people receiving such treatments for back and neck pain, common colds, anxiety, depression and even cancer.

Therapies are termed Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment. If that isnt sufficiently unclear, either category may include nutritional, holistic, naturopathic, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and other forms of medicine. Commonly labeled unconventional or unorthodox by the conservative mainstream, are these approaches valid?

Instead of wholesome foods and natural supplements, we have only drug studies paid for by the drug companies. Big pharma spends tens of thousands of dollars per doctor and $1.8 billion on public advertising to ensure their market is maintained. answers Conrad Maulfair, DO at a recent Integrated Medicine conference. Opinion and economic interests have fashioned what is considered acceptable medical practice.

And so history repeats. Consider Claudius Galen, a Greek doctor who lived in the second century AD, Galen spent his lifetime in observation of the human body and its functioning. He performed extensive research and dissections to better understand the functions of the body. After he died, serious anatomical and physiological research ground to a halt. Orthodox medicine believed that everything there was to be said on the subject had been said. Although very enlightened for his time, Galen made certain serious mistakes mistaken ideas which medical experts upheld centuries.

For nearly 1400 years, orthodox medical experts followed Galens teachings that the tides of the blood sloshed back and forth through the body, passing through the heart, where it was mixed with air, by pores in the septum. The lungs were responsible for moving the blood around the body. In 1628 William Harvey, an English doctor and researcher, published his findings that the heart, not the lungs, circulated the blood through a closed system of veins and arteries. His research notes first show this finding as early as 1615. Although a respected member of the Royal Medical Academy, Harvey waited 13 years, until 1628, to publish his findings. He closes his findings with the statement Farewell, most worthy Doctors, and think kindly of your Anatomist. His findings were never accepted during his lifetime, rather he was broadly attacked.

Why on Earth did the Galenic model last almost 1,400 years? It was obviously baseless. Many anatomists, including the great Leonardo da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius a respected Belgian anatomist, and others had failed to find holes in the intraventricular septum for well over 200 years before Harvey. In fact, it seems certain that these were never even found by Galen; these anomalies, however, did not seem to trouble the faithful! No one dared challenge popular opinion.

One important school of thought has withstood centuries of research. Considered the Father of Medicine, Hippocrates of Cos II made lasting contributions. The Hippocratic school held that all illness was the result of an imbalance in the body.When the four humours, blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm, were not in balance, a person would become sick and remain that way until the balance was somehow restored. Hippocrates or his students hold the earliest recorded use of vitamin C (citrus) to address the common cold.

Today, an integrated, holistic approach to healing recognizes that the emotional, mental, spiritual and physical elements of each person comprise a system. Working with this systems approach, Dr. Maulfair treats the cause of an illness rather than just the symptoms. Services at Maulfair Medical Center focus on integrating complimentary and alternative medical approaches, rather than drug-oriented medicine with its emphasis on pharmaceutical drugs. Clients of Maulfair Medical Centers comprehensive programs regain their quality of life by restoring their health balance.
Garrison, Fielding H. History of Medicine, WB Saunders Company. Philadelphia, PA 1966.
Kilgour FG. Harvey's use of Galen's findings in his discovery of the circulation of the blood. J Hist Med Allied Sci 1957; 12(2):232-4.
Schultz SG. William Harvey and the circulation of the blood: the birth of a scientific revolution and modern physiology. News Physiol Sci 2002; 17:175-80.
Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Adv Data 2004; (343):1-19.
Barnes, J.; Abbot, N. C.; Harkness, E. F., and Ernst, E. Articles on complementary medicine in the mainstream medical literature: an investigation of MEDLINE, 1966 through 1996. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Aug 9-1999 Aug 23; 159(15):1721-5.
Findlay SD. Direct-to-consumer promotion of prescription drugs. Economic implications for patients, payers and providers. Pharmacoeconomics 2001; 19(2):109-19.
Ross JS, Lackner JE, Lurie P, Gross CP, Wolfe S, Krumholz HM. Pharmaceutical company payments to physicians: early experiences with disclosure laws in Vermont and Minnesota. JAMA 2007; 297(11):1216-23.